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Preventing and Responding to Conflict-Related Sexual Violence: Examining the Use of UN Sanctions

European Peace Institute / News - Wed, 17/04/2024 - 18:00
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In advance of the Security Council’s open debate on conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV), IPI, together with the Permanent Mission of Denmark to the UN, co-hosted a policy forum on April 17th on the topic of “Preventing and Responding to Conflict-Related Sexual Violence: Examining the Use of UN Sanctions.”

The purpose of this policy forum was to consider how sanctions have been used in response to CRSV. The discussion examined the relationship between the annual reports of the secretary-general on CRSV and sanctions designations and provided recommendations to enhance complementarity.

The policy forum also launched the IPI publication “UN Tools for Addressing Conflict-Related Sexual Violence: An Analysis of Listings and Sanctions Processes,” written by Jenna Russo and Lauren McGowan. The event and publication were made possible with generous support from the government of Denmark.

Opening Remarks:
H.E. Christina Markus Lassen, Permanent Representative of Denmark to the UN

Speakers:
Lauren McGowan, Policy Analyst, International Peace Institute
Tonderai Chikuhwa, Senior Policy Adviser, UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict
Natascha Hryckow, Associate Fellow, Global Fellowship Initiative of the Geneva Centre for Security Policy, and Former Coordinator for the UN Panel of Experts on Somalia (VTC)
Francesca Cassar, Africa, Economic and Development Coordinator, Permanent Mission of Malta to the UN
Pauline Brosch, Policy Specialist, Protection and Transitional Justice, UN Women

Moderator:
Jenna Russo, Director of Research and Head of the Brian Urquhart Center for Peace Operations, International Peace Institute

Wer stoppt die Eskalationsspirale?

SWP - Wed, 17/04/2024 - 14:26
Irans Angriff auf Israel

Studentische Hilfskraft (w/m/div) für das Sozio-oekonomische Panel (SOEP)

Die am DIW Berlin angesiedelte forschungsbasierte Infrastruktureinrichtung Sozio-oekonomisches

Panel (SOEP) sucht zum nächstmöglichen Zeitpunkt eine

studentische Hilfskraft (w/m/div)

für 15 Wochenstunden.

 


Security of Supply in Times of Geo-economic Fragmentation

SWP - Wed, 17/04/2024 - 02:00

The recent political consensus on the European Critical Raw Materials Act (CRMA) marks a significant step towards a common raw materials policy within the European Union (EU). Against the backdrop of increasing geopolitical tensions, the EU aims to bolster its “strategic autonomy” within its raw material supply chains. To achieve this goal, it is essential for the EU and its member states to enhance collaboration with mineral-rich third countries. The current geopolitical environment will require a con­certed effort on the part of the EU with respect to its raw material diplomacy, as only through such effective engagement will the EU be able to diplomatically and program­matically implement raw material partnerships that appeal to third countries.

UN Tools for Addressing Conflict-Related Sexual Violence: An Analysis of Listings and Sanctions Processes

European Peace Institute / News - Tue, 16/04/2024 - 18:24

Since the Security Council first recognized conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) as a threat to international peace and security in 2008, the UN has developed an increasing number of pathways to prevent and respond to such crimes. One of these is the annual report of the secretary-general on CRSV, which includes an annexed list of perpetrators who are credibly suspected of committing or being responsible for patterns of CRSV violations in contexts on the agenda of the Security Council. In addition, perpetrators of CRSV may also be designated in UN sanctions regimes. Yet while both of these processes aim to prevent and respond to CRSV, they are not always coherent with one another.

This paper analyzes the relationship between the annual reports of the secretary-general on CRSV and sanctions designations to provide recommendations to enhance their complementarity. It provides an overview of the CRSV annual report and the process for listing parties. It then focuses on designations in sanctions regimes for crimes related to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), including the level of coherence between the reporting of the secretary-general and designations in sanctions regimes. Next, the paper analyzes the reporting and political barriers that inhibit more regular designations for SGBV in sanctions regimes. Finally, it provides recommendations to the UN and member states on how to improve the coherence, coordination, and effectiveness of these processes, including the following.

For member states:

  • Explicitly list SGBV as a criterion within all sanctions regimes for contexts where sexual violence may be taking place.
  • Prioritize utilizing existing SGBV-related criteria as appropriate with available evidence.
  • Provide additional resources for panels of experts.
  • Increase coherence between the parties listed in the annual reports on CRSV and the individuals and entities designated in sanctions regimes.
  • Organize an annual field visit for sanctions committees to the context in question.
  • Create a standing capacity within the UN to engage with designated parties, with the aim of encouraging compliance and facilitating de-listing.

For the UN Secretariat and panels of experts:

  • Establish a platform for regularly coordinating and sharing information between the office of the special representative of the secretary-general on sexual violence in conflict and panels of experts.
  • Institute more structured handover processes between incoming and outgoing members of panels of experts.
  • Provide more robust training on SGBV for panels of experts.
  • Strengthen CRSV expertise and capacity within the Security Council Affairs Division.

Can the World Bank Deliver on Climate Change? Testing the Evolution Roadmap through Loss and Damage

European Peace Institute / News - Mon, 15/04/2024 - 17:55

The establishment of a new Loss and Damage Fund and Funding Arrangements at COP27 and the Fund’s operationalization and initial capitalization at COP28 were milestones in the UN climate regime. The World Bank engaged in the Transitional Committee (TC) process as a potential host and trustee for the Fund, a member of a new “High-Level Dialogue,” and a direct provider of loss and damage (L&D) support. The implementation of the Fund and Funding Arrangements—the mosaic—is the first big test of the World Bank’s commitment to evolving its policies, practices, and relationships.

This paper discusses the World Bank’s engagement with loss and damage, including the context of broader reforms aiming to modernize the Bank, such as the Bank’s Evolution Roadmap, which identifies three guiding elements for the Bank’s evolution: a new mission and vision, a new playbook, and new resources. One of the key components of the Bank’s evolution is the introduction of climate-resilient debt clauses (CRDCs) or “pause clauses.” Pause clauses feature prominently in recent initiatives to reform the international financial architecture, such as Bridgetown 2.0, the Africa Climate Summit’s Nairobi Declaration, and the Vulnerable Twenty Group’s (V20) Accra-Marrakech Agenda.

The paper also discusses the debate over the World Bank’s hosting of the Fund and the set of conditions and safeguards, determined by developing countries, that the Bank would have to meet in order to host the Fund. Finally, the paper discusses priority actions for the High-Level Dialogue, including resource mobilization, institutional protocols, and the losses and damages of the future.

Claudia Kemfert: „Aufhebung der Sektorziele im Klimaschutzgesetz ist ein großer Fehler“

Die Ampelkoalition hat sich Berichten zufolge auf eine Reform des Klimaschutzgesetzes geeinigt. Dazu ein Statement von Claudia Kemfert, Energieökonomin und Leiterin der Abteilung Energie, Verkehr, Umwelt im Deutschen Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW Berlin):

Zwar ist es gut, dass sich die Bundesregierung beim Klimaschutzgesetz endlich geeinigt hat, da es an andere wichtige Vorhaben und Gesetzespakete insbesondere im Bereich der erneuerbaren Energien gekoppelt war. Es ist aber in höchstem Maße bedauerlich, dass ein Kuhhandel notwendig ist, um endlich richtige Ziele und Maßnahmen zum Ausbau der Solarenergie voranzutreiben. Die Aufhebung der Sektorziele beim Klimaschutzgesetz wiederum ist ein großer Fehler, da so nicht mehr sichergestellt ist, dass einzelne Sektoren dafür Verantwortung tragen, Emissionen zu mindern.  

So droht die Erreichung der Klimaschutzziele mit der Aufhebung der Sektorziele im Klimaschutzgesetz verfehlt zu werden. Die Bundesregierung rechnet sich derzeit die Erreichung der Klimaschutzziele bis 2030 schön, da sie davon ausgeht, dass konjunkturelle Einbußen und ein geringerer Stromverbrauch die Klimaschutzziele in Reichweite rücken lassen. Ohne Sektorziele entlässt man die einzelnen Bereiche aber aus der Verantwortung. So wird beispielsweise der Verkehrssektor seine Klimaziele wohl auch weiterhin dauerhaft verfehlen. Andere Sektoren werden kaum in der Lage sein, die Verfehlungen im Verkehrssektor zu kompensieren.

Frankreichs disruptive Zeitenwende

SWP - Mon, 15/04/2024 - 02:00

Die russische Vollinvasion in der Ukraine ab dem 24. Februar 2022 hat die franzö­sische Sicherheitspolitik nicht so fundamental erschüttert wie die deutsche. Frankreich sieht sich in seinen bisherigen Zielen bestätigt, vor allem darin, die strategische Souveränität Europas zu stärken. Es hat aber in vielen Berei­chen nachgesteuert, um seine Ambitionen unter veränderten Rahmenbedingungen weiterzuverfolgen. Zu dieser sicherheitspolitischen Zielkontinuität bei einer bemerkenswerten Mittel- und Kursanpassung gehören Frankreichs nun aktive Unterstützung für die EU- und Nato-Erweiterung und sein stärkeres Nato-Engagement. Damit ließen sich teilweise auch Irritationen europäischer Partner ausräumen, die Präsident Macron 2022 mit seinen Äußerungen über ein notwendiges Zugehen auf Russland hervor­gerufen hatte. Die inhalt­lichen Unterschiede zwischen Deutschland und Frankreich bleiben jedoch bestehen und haben sich teils verschärft, was die bilaterale Koopera­tion erschwert.

Israel: »Die Gefahr einer Ausweitung des Konflikts ist real und groß«

SWP - Sun, 14/04/2024 - 20:09
Wie geht es nach den iranischen Luftangriffen weiter? Der Politikwissenschaftler Volker Perthes über die Gefahr eines Flächenbrands und das Kalkül des Teheraner Regimes

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