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The European Intervention Initiative (EI2)

Sat, 11/17/2018 - 22:22

The European Intervention Initiative (Initiative européenne d'intervention, EI2/IEI) was first proposed by French President Emmanuel Macron in his Sorbonne keynote in September 2017 and nine members signed a Letter of Intent (LoI) to begin work on 25 June 2018. France's motivation to establish this, and other European military projects, is to support its operations in the Sahel which it is struggling to maintain alone.

The ultimate aim of the EI2 is a shared strategic culture that would enhance the ability of its members to act together on missions as part of NATO, the EU, UN or other ad-hoc coalitions. The project is intented to be resource neutral and makes use of existing assets and other joint forces available to members. EI2 seeks for enhanced interaction on intelligence sharing, scenario planning, support operations and doctrine.

The starting point of the EI2 is the speech on Europe delivered on September 26, 2017 at the Sorbonne by President Macron during which in the field of defense, he "proposes now to try to build this culture. in common, by proposing a European intervention initiative aimed at developing this shared strategic culture. [...] At the beginning of the next decade, Europe will have to have a common intervention force, a common defense budget and a common doctrine to act ". The French will was to constitute a "hard core" ready to act very quickly in case of need as was the case in Mali where France mounted Operation Serval. in a few days. Not all IEI Member States will necessarily participate in each operation.

It is not a matter of creating a new rapid response force prepositioned as it already exists in the framework of NATO (with the NRF) or the CSDP (with the Battlegroups), or bilaterally for example between France and the United Kingdom (with CJEF (in). The means provided will be composed to specifically meet the needs of a crisis.
According to the LoI, the initiative will focus on enhanced interaction in four key areas: strategic foresight and intelligence sharing, scenario development and planning, operations support, and fourth. feedback and doctrine. To this end, the armed forces of the signatory countries will notably carry out exchanges of officers, joint exercises of anticipation and planning, the sharing of doctrines and the writing of joint scenarios of intervention.

The French Armed Forces Staff is responsible for organizing the effective launch of the IEI by holding the first Military European Strategic Talks (MEST) and developing a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) here the end of the year 2018.

France's long-term ambition is to create a "common strategic culture". The French Minister of the Armed Forces, Florence Parly, specifies that it is about "developing between countries at the same time militarily capable and politically voluntary" habits "to work together, to be able to prepare, if necessary to be in capacity to intervene, where they decide, at the moment of their decision, on extremely varied scenarios ". German Federal Defense Minister Ursula von der Leyen adds that "the aim is to create a forum, with like-minded states, who will analyze situations, who will have discussions early, when crises will manifest themselves in a region, and which, together, will be able to develop a political will".

Participating States
The signatory states on June 25, 2018 of the letter of intent are Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, France, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom. Germany is initially reluctant for fear that this new initiative will weaken those taken since 2016 under the CSDP (notably the European Defense Action Plan and Permanent Structured Cooperation). The meeting of the Franco-German Council of Ministers on 19 June at Meseberg Castle, near Berlin, offers a positive response.

Italy participated in the preparatory meetings but the new government formed on 1 June 2018 asked for a reflection period. The participation of the United Kingdom, in the process of withdrawal from the European Union, illustrates the willingness of the British to remain leading partners in European security. Their participation, like that of Danes who are not part of the CSDP, is made possible by the fact that the EI2 is outside the institutional framework of the European Union. Finland confirmed, during the visit of French President Emmanuel Macron in Helsinki on 30 August 2018, its decision taken a few days earlier to join the European intervention initiative and its accession was validated on 7 November 2018 by the nine defense ministers of IEI member countries.

Relationship with PeSCo
The EI2 is the creation of a set of European states as prerequisites for joint operational commitments in various predefined military intervention scenarios. EI2 operationally complements Permanent Structured Cooperation (CSP or PeSCo) focused on the capability area. Based on Article 42.6 and Protocol 10 of the Treaty on European Union, PeSCp was introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, and first initiated in 2017.

EI2 seeks some synergies with the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) that has newly been established within the European Union's (EU) Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), and PESCO projects are intended to be integrated into the EI2 where feasible. France's concern is that developing the EI2 within PESCO would result in lengthy decision times or watered down ambition. This led to some tensions regarding the project between France and Germany, with the latter concerned that it would harm the EU's political cohesion. Including the EI2 within PESCO is also seen as problematic as it prevents the participation of the UK and Denmark.

The minimum number of participating states for cooperation under PESCO, according to the Lisbon Treaty, is nine. As the IEI does not fit within the institutional framework of the CSDP the number of participants is not limited.

NATO does not need such a structure anymore. Moreover it is very anacronistic at the moment or by the BREXIT one of the most powerful European armies will leave the Union. The participation of states, member of the EU but not member of the CSDP (Denmark) shows how this initiative can be considered serious.
The need for the establishment of the EI2 is highly questionable. One more idea of the political leaders (especially French) who instead of realizing and ensuring the conditions sine qua non of the programs already launched, the strengthening and modernization of the army. Everyone tinkers with his own new initiative, promises roaring never or little done. Why the battle groups do not work have never engaged? Instead of meeting this challenge rather another program with very nebulous goals, confused with lots of bullshits.
"A common doctrine to act" should be preceded by a "common strategy", but that of the EU is far from being a real strategy.

Tag: European Intervention InitiativeEI2Initiative européenne d'interventionIEIMEST
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Towards a New Russian Military Doctrine?

Sat, 11/10/2018 - 20:59

According to Viktor Yesin, Russian weapons may simply be ineffective in case of an open armed confrontation. The point is about the withdrawal of the United States from the INF Treaty, which regulates the elimination of short and medium range missiles.

The Perimeter functions perfectly and has passed all stages of preparation and verification, the system can be used only if all of Russia's other nuclear weapons are destroyed as a result of the enemy's attack. This Russian system of automatic nuclear retaliation in the West is known as the Dead Hand.

The Perimeter system was put in operation in the USSR in 1985. In a nutshell, the system ensures the automatic launch of nuclear missiles in case of a nuclear attack against Russia, even if there is no one left to be able to give such an order. All the available data about the work of the system is served with such words as "probably," "possibly," and so on. No one knows how the system works exactly. In general, the Perimeter is a form of artificial intelligence that evaluates a multitude of factors about a nuclear attack on the basis of information received from radar stations, space satellites, seismic activity, etc.

Nuclear-capable missiles will thus be launched from silos, mobile launchers, strategic aircraft, submarines to strike pre-entered targets, unless there is no signal from the command center to cancel the attack. In general, even though there is little information available about the work of the Perimeter, one thing is known for sure: the doomsday machine is not a myth at all - it does exist.

The specialist is convinced that the United States can easily destroy Russia's nuclear arms. Without the INF Treaty, the USA will be able to deploy as many ballistic missiles as possible in Europe. According to Yesin, the Americans will thus be able not only to destroy Russian nuclear weapons, but to intercept them if Russia launches missiles to retaliate. The attack led to a massive nuclear exchange between the two countries that caused irreparable damage to the two states and claimed the lives of more than 400 million people.

Russia must revise its nuclear doctrine as soon as possible.

Source :

Tag: RussiaINF TreatyPerimeter
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

New Failure of Europe of Defense : the Belgian F-35s

Fri, 10/26/2018 - 12:34

Unsurprisingly, Belgium has announced that it has chosen the American F-35 fighter.Unsurprisingly, Belgium has announced that it has chosen the American F-35 fighter. Second betrayal of partners by Belgium, "heart of the European Union" since the 1970s. After 48 years, new proof to what extent Belgium's policy is influenced by the Americans, which was also the case in 1970. New proof to what extent European integration can be considered serious. Quo vadis European integration?

Why has Belgium once again turned its back on the European preference?

Thanks to two defining criteria that were insinuated in the specifications for the replacement of the F-16: the ability to carry a US-made nuclear bomb and stealth. Two crucial criteria for the success of the F-35. Belgium has been carrying out the nuclear mission on behalf of NATO for decades. The F-16s stationed at Kleine-Brogel (F-16A) are capable of carrying and dropping an American B-61 nuclear bomb. In any case, Brussels who wishes to keep it, had made it known.

This skewed the competition and favored the American F-35 against its four competitors: F / A-18E / F Super Hornet, Rafale F3R, JAS-39E / F Gripen and Eurofighter Typhoon. Only the F-35 will be able to carry out the mission of nuclear attack by carrying a B-61 American gravitational bomb. It is designed as dual capacity (conventional and nuclear) and should be able to carry a bomb B-61 in a later phase (!) of its development, probably from 2022 (!).

What is not the case for other contenders to Belgian market, with the exception of the Rafale, which already carries a nuclear weapon. However, Germany has also made a formal request to the United States to integrate the B-61 under the Eurofighter. In theory, this ability could also be certified on the European fighter. Not sure if Washington shares with anyone the firing and releasing codes of the B-61s.

"Within the Alliance, Belgium has accepted, five decades ago, that its fighter jets have both conventional and nuclear capabilities, taking into account a joint analysis of the global threat. NATO is asking us to continue to maintain our combat aircraft available for any such missions, and we look forward to meeting all our obligations in this regard, " said Belgian Foreign Minister Didier Reynders.

In addition, the Belgian Air Force is close to that of the Netherlands, which without hesitation bought eight F-35s in March 2015 on a target of 37 aircraft.

Despite the fact that about 38,000 signatures were collected against the idea of ​​equipping the Belgian air force with F-35 stealth fighter jets, the finance committee of the House of Representatives refused to hear the arguments opponents of this project.

The F-35 project is the most expensive project ever seen. The aircraft had several hundred defeats (hardver + software) his "brother" the F-22 Rapter, after it was put in place with the US Army, was less effective in the fight against the Eurofighter and the former F-16 is stealth is also highly doubtful.

Tag: BelgiumF-35RafaleEurofighter
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

NATO response to Vostok 2018 : Trident Juncture 2018

Thu, 10/25/2018 - 14:49

NATO response to Vostok 2018 : Trident Juncture 18, abbreviated TRJE18, is a NATO-led military exercise to be held in Norway in October and November 2018 with an Article 5 collective defence scenario.

Trident Juncture 2018 will consist of three main parts:
- A phase of deployment lasting from August to October,
- LIVEX (live field exercise) from 25 October to 7 November. The land battle will take place in the area south of Trondheim and north of Rena Camp in Hedmark County. There will also be sea activity along the Norwegian Coast, the North Sea and limited areas in The Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. There will be air activity in the airspace over Norway, Sweden and Finland.
- CPX ( command post exercise) from 13 to 24 November 2018 at NATO's Joint Warfare Centre in Stavanger, Norway. This is a data simulated desk exercise to train the headquarters. This exercise is also a certification test for Allied Joint Force Command Naples.

The Norwegian Armed Forces have called the exercise the largest to be held in Norway since the 1980s, it will be NATO's largest exercise since 2002. An expected 50,000 participants from 31 nations will take part, including 10,000 vehicles, 250 aircraft and 65 vessels.

The exercise will mainly take place in central and eastern parts of Norway, and air and sea areas in Norway, Sweden and Finland. The main goals of Trident Juncture is to train the NATO Response Force and to test the alliance's defence capability. For Norway, the exercise will test the country's ability to receive and handle allied support.

Tag: Trident Juncture 2018Vostok 2018
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Vostok 2018 - Russia`s Largest Army Drill In History

Tue, 09/11/2018 - 21:44

The Vostok 2018 (or Orient-2018) military exercise, between 11-17 September, will mobilize for four days no less than 300 000 soldiers (virtually all forces of Central and Western Russian military districts of Russia), 36 000 armored vehicles and more than a thousand aircraft (planes, helicopters and drones).

The Chinese and Mongolian armed forces will be invited. There will be an air of Zapad-81 (in 1981 with 100.000 soldiers, a hard message to the West and to the revolted Poland), but more imposing in a way.

Tag: Vostok 2018
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Arrogant, disgracious behavior of the EULEX Kosovo mission

Mon, 09/10/2018 - 18:56

I asked for more information on the activity of the mission and Iooked for an interview with the EULEX Kosovo mission. Several e-mails signed by no one have arrived : conversation with no-names, unable to understand my request and my questions.

People who treat us as idiots who do not know the sites of the European Union ( and Poison pens who do not dare to sign a letter, people who do not dare to take responsibility. Which simply "did not feel like" transferring questions to the right people. Answers from an EU mission`s information service with visible evidence of not wanting to help. I have never encountered such a situation concerning an EU, UN (etc.) mission or operation...

(I have not had any other choice because unfortunately there is no more e-mail address on the site.)

We strongly doubt the importance of these information services funded by European citizens. They would be obliged to answer us.

They have webpage whose links do not work anymore. (I can imagine the thousands of euros that were paid for this.) But they do not stop creating advertising for themselves, in the name of genderism, book about the biography of the female mission`s members and the other things really very, very important. (In this case, no problem with urls.) Unbelievable.

My books and university textbooks about CSDP and EU missions are used by several universities all over Europe in Africa and elsewhere in education. In our next book on the Balkans this case will be mentioned.

Dear Mr. Türke,
As already mentioned on 2 and 9 August 2018, we do not have the resources to meet each request for information.
Having explained the above, we hereby inform you that we will not respond to any further inquiries on this matter.

Yours sincerely,
Office of Chief of Staff
EULEX Kosovo

From: Dr. TÜRKE András István [mailto:(...)]
Sent: Wednesday, September 5, 2018 10:33
To: EULEX Kosovo Information
Subject: request for additional informations II.

Dear Office of the Chief of Staff,

Please forward my e-mail towards competent persons, who are able to answer to my questions, like Ms. Alexandra Papadopoulou or Mr. Bernd Thran.
Thanks a lot.

Best regards:
Andras Istvan Türke

Europa Varietas Institute

Le 2 août 2018 à 10:13:23, EULEX Kosovo Information ( a écrit:

Dear Mr Türke,
Thank you for your email and interest in EULEX Kosovo.
Unfortunately, we do not currently have the resources to meet each request for information. While we regret not being able to accommodate your request for information, we would kindly direct you to the EULEX website ( which contains information about the Mission, its work, press releases, EU in Kosovo, EU External Action, CSDP, and other relevant data. We would also kindly direct you to the websites of EEAS and EU, and respectively for more information.

Yours sincerely,
Office of the Chief of Staff
EULEX Kosovo

From: Dr. TÜRKE András István [mailto:(...)]
Sent: Thursday, 19 July 2018 10:18
To: EULEX Kosovo Information
Subject: request for additional informations

Madam / Sir,

I am director of the independent Swiss based Europa Varietas Institute.

I am writing a book about EU diplomacy and mission in the Western Balkans (1991-2018) and I request for some additional informations about the activity of EULEX Kosovo.

I read a lot of very critical books about EULEX activity during the period 2008-2013, the mission was accused to being biased towards former UCK members.
I would like to know how far the mission has been changed since them.
What are the on-site experiences, the most important challenges to overcome?
What are the lessons learned compared to other EULEX missions?
I would like to have information that is beyond the official EU texts.

I need some lists
- about prosecutors investigated 400 war crimes
- about the 150 drafted laws
- about EULEX HoMs with period of activity

Other interesting documents are welcome.

I need also these documents but impossible to download, there are a lot of bugs on your site :
(+ other and older verdicts)

Thanks a lot.

Best regards:
Andras Istvan Türke

Europa Varietas Institute

Tag: EULEX Kosovo
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Scallops War skirmish at Normandy Coast

Tue, 08/28/2018 - 00:00
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Iron Cat 2018 : Hungarian-Serbian Common Military Exercice

Thu, 07/19/2018 - 00:00

Iron cat 15-19 July 2018 on the Danube

Tag: Iron Cat
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Russian Volga-Dnepr leaves SALIS

Wed, 04/18/2018 - 16:29

From January 1, 2019, the Russian Volga will cease providing AN-124 capacity for EU and NATO states under NATO's heavy military air transport program SALIS (Strategic Airlift Interim Solution), which includes 17 European member states and Canada. The loss is sensitive: Under Salis, Antonov and Volga have each had an AN-124 permanently stationed at Leipzig-Halle Airport since March 2006, with additional uplift available at short notice.

Unfortunately, the SALIS Program Office did not succeed in overcoming the Russian withdrawal, despite the long negotiations. The move comes just over a year after the Russian freighter operator announced the end of the near-decade-long Russlan collaboration to market AN-124 capacity with Ukraine’s Antonov. A move thought to be in response to western sanctions on Russian companies. Negotiations conducted by the Salis steering board last week failed to avert the withdrawal. After Volga-Dnepr subsidiary AirBridgeCargo lost about half its 21 landing slots at Schiphol last year, Russia reportedly threatened to ban Dutch carriers from its airspace. Shortly after, KLM struck a deal with ABC over additional slots.

The ending of the Salis contract puts pressure on NATO and the EU, which need access to the world’s largest commercial cargo aircraft. This is a serious loss of capacity: the Ukrainian An-124s of Antonov's air transport industry are only flying 900 flights per year - the largest fleet with two Russian aircraft has been available to SALIS's designers for up to 2300 hours per year.

There is always the possibility that the withdrawal is part of a larger play by Volga-Dnepr president Alexey Isaikin, who is looking to set up a German cargo airline, with AN-124s registered in Germany, at Leipzig. By registering an AN-124 to a German company, the Volga-Dnepr group would no longer be caught in the crossfire of political skirmishes between Russia and elsewhere, which includes problems with Antonov maintenance. And as an EU company, it might get preferential treatment for military shipments over Ukraine’s Antonov. It also adds pressure on Germany, which is keen to develop Leipzig-Halle as a freight airport, to OK the new airline’s AOC and aircraft registration. (Although as one source told The Loadstar, Lufthansa Cargo was unlikely to welcome a new freighter airline on its doorstep, and would “go ape-shit”.)

Tag: SALISVolga-Dnepr
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Coopération "Lancester House II"?

Fri, 01/19/2018 - 09:33

(French version below)

France and the United Kingdom strengthen military cooperation : A new phase of the Lancaster House Agreement in 2010

French President Emmanuel Macron and the British PM Theresa May announced Thursday, January 18, 2018 a strengthening of Franco-British cooperation in the areas of migration and defense. The United Kingdom has just announced the availability of "heavy" helicopters to support French operations in the Sahel and Sahara. The United Kingdom has indeed agreed to make available to French forces in Mali three of its military helicopters "Chinook". This is precisely the tool that is missing most French infantry in the Sahel and Sahara.

Barkhane aligns well 17 helicopters, but none can carry thirty men and their equipment in one fell swoop. The United Kingdom will also provide 56 million euros of additional aid for the alliance for the Sahel. In recent years, UK and France have worked side by side to combat the global threat posed by the Ebola virus. The peries will increase our efforts in the Sahel to prevent Islamic extremism from increasing instability and insecurity that feeds the migration crisis.

London could also announce a contribution to the financing of the joint G5 Sahel force (FCG5S) at the Brussels meeting on 23 February. Paris and London are also announcing increased support in East Africa, particularly through AMISOM, the African Union Mission for Somalia.

The two capitals announce that the Combined Joint Expedition Force (CJEF), launched after the Lancaster House agreements, will be ready to be deployed in the most demanding operations by 2020. This force has obtained its certification final spring 2017, during Exercise Griffin Strike. In addition, now some 50 officers are inserted into the respective armed forces.

French officers were deployed on British operations and British officers on French operations. (We are very moved about the "incredible speed" of the setting up of such a force by 2 West European states whose armed forces are the most important: 10 years!)Finally, on the industrial side, France and the United Kingdom confirm their willingness to cooperate in the field of submarine UAVs and in the future air combat systems.


La France et le Royaume-Uni renforcent leur coopération militaire : Une nouvelle phase des Accords de Lancaster House en 2010

Le président français Emmanuel Macron et le PM birtannique Theresa May ont annoncé jeudi 18 janvier 2018 un renforcement de la coopération franco-britannique dans les domaines des migrations et de la défense. Le Royaume-Uni vient ainsi d'annoncer la mise à disposition d'hélicoptères « lourds » pour appuyer les opérations françaises au Sahel et au Sahara. Le Royaume-Uni a en effet accepté de mettre à disposition des forces françaises au Mali trois de ses hélicoptères militaires « Chinook ». C'est précisément l'outil qui manque le plus aux fantassins français au Sahel et au Sahara.

Barkhane aligne bien 17 hélicoptères, mais aucun ne peut transporter d'un seul coup une trentaine d'hommes et leur équipement. Le Royaume-Uni fournira aussi 56 millions d'euros d'aide supplémentaire pour l'alliance pour le Sahel. Ces dernières années, le Royaume-Uni et la France ont travaillé côte à côte pour combattre la menace globale que représente le virus Ebola. Les perties vont augmenter nos efforts dans le Sahel pour empêcher l’extrémisme islamique d'augmenter une instabilité et une insécurité qui nourrissent la crise migratoire ».

Londres pourrait aussi annoncer une participation au financement de la force conjointe du G5 Sahel, (FCG5S) lors de la réunion de Bruxelles le 23 février prochain. Paris et Londres annoncent aussi un soutien accentué en Afrique de l'Est en particulier via l'AMISOM, la mission de l'Union Africaine pour la Somalie.

Les deux capitales annoncent que la Force expéditionnaire commune (CJEF - Combined Joint Expedition Force), lancée après les accords de Lancaster House sera prête à être déployée dans les opérations les plus exigeantes d'ici 2020. Cette force a obtenu sa certification finale le printemps 2017, lors de l’exercice Griffin Strike. Par ailleurs, désormais quelque 50 officiers sont insérés au sein des forces armées respectives.

Les officiers français ont été déployés dans le cadre d’opérations britanniques et des officiers britanniques dans le cadre d’opérations françaises . (Nous sommes très émus concernant la "vitesse incroyable" de la mise en place d`une telle force par 2 Etats ouest-européens dont les forces armées sont les plus importants : 10 ans!)
Enfin sur le volet industriel, la France et le Royaume-Uni confirment leur volonté de coopérer dans le domaine des drones sous-marin chasseurs de mine et dans les systèmes de combat aérien du futur.

Tag: CJEFG5 Sahel
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

[Compte rendu] L’Union européenne et la paix, L’invention d’un modèle européen de gestion des conflits

Thu, 01/11/2018 - 00:00

L’Union européenne et la paix, L’invention d’un modèle européen de gestion des conflits sous la direction de Anne Bazin, Charles Tenenbaum, Coll. Relations Internationales, SciencePo, Les Presses, 2017

Le livre intitulé „L’Union européenne et la paix. L’invention d’un modèle européen de gestion des conflits” est un travail collectif de dix auteurs sous la rédaction d’Anne Bazin et Charles Tetenbaum. Les deux co-auteurs sont des maitres de conférence en science politique a Sciences Po Lille et les chercheurs au Centre d’études et de recherches administratives, politiques et sociales (CERAPS, Université de Lille 2).
Anne Bazin dans sa recherche se concentre autour des questions liées a la politique étrangère de l’UE. Charles Tenenbaum s’interesse à la thématique des médiations internationales et résolution des conflits et de multilatéralisme.

Ce livre d’une manière scientifique et méthodique dessine une analyse approfondie et détaillée de la politique de la construction de la paix par l’UE après la guerre froide. Cet Union qui, en 2012 reçoit le prix Nobel de la Paix.

Il démontre quelles sont les logiques politiques et les changements dynamiques institutionnels qui accompagnent dans le temps la création et l’évolution d’un modèle européen de gestion des crises.

L’Union européenne apparait comme un acteur majeur de la paix et de la résolution des conflits au coté des autres organisations internationales comme Organisation des Nations Unis et Organisation de Sécurité et de Coopération en Europe.

La structure du livre, accompagnée par une introduction d’Anne Bazin et de Charles Tenenbaum se compose de deux partis et se compose de 9 chapitres. Dans la première partie nous trouvons les propos théorique, concernant la création et le fonctionnement des politiques de la gestion des crises de l’UE. La deuxième partie décrit les exemples concrets d’implémentation des différents instruments et de stratégies de la politique étrangère et de sécurité: le Proche Orient, la Somalie et le Caucase afin de mieux démontrer les initiatives de la paix de l’UE dans le terrain.

Chaque chapitre est écrit par un autre chercheur venant des différents universités, pas seulement européens (Science Po Lille, Science Po Grenoble, Cardiff University, Université Hebraique de Jerusalem, College d’Europe de Bruges, Université d’Amsterdam).

Dans l’introduction les auteurs souhaitent souligner l’importance de comprendre l’évolution institutionnelle et politique de la gestion des crises made in Europe. Le premier chapitre démontre l’évolution institutionnelle des mécanismes européens dans une perspective historique et sociologique. Dans le deuxième chapitre les auteurs présentent les acteurs majeurs et les pratiques d’implantation de l paix par les institutions de l’UE. Dans le troisième chapitre l’auteur décrit les actions menées par l’Union a cote des autres institutions internationales qui s’activent dans le domaine des missions pacifiques et de gestion de crise. Dans le quatrième chapitre nous avons une analyse de la manière de laquelle sont analysées les programmes de démocratisation dans la stratégique globale de la politique de l’Union notamment la gestion de crise. Chapitre cinq présente une chronologie très détaillée de la création de la politique extérieure de l’UE. Il se divise en quatre parties:
- l'évolution normative,
- la mise en place de la politique de gestion de crises de l’UE,
- le niveau institutionnel,
- les exemples des missions de paix menées par l’Union (Croatie, Bosnie, Kosovo; Afghanistan, Libye; Tchétchénie, Georgie, Ukraine).
Le chapitre six présente l’évolution de médiation comme un des instruments pacifique de la gestion de crise par l’UE. Les trois derniers chapitres décrivent les exemples exacts de l’engagement de lUE dans la construction et du maintien de la paix dans le monde : le conflit Israélo-Palestinien, la Somalie et le Caucase.

Cet ouvrage présente des normes, des pratiques ainsi que des acteurs de l’UE selon une démarche de sociologie des relations internationales:
- les enquêtes sociologiques approfondies,
- les entretiens avec des praticiens, des experts et des diplomates qui participent dans ce processus directement.
Les auteurs soulignent que l’UE développe depuis la fin de la guerre froide les divers instruments de sa politique étrangère:
◦ la gestion des crises,
◦ la prévention,
◦ la médiation,
◦ la réconciliation,
◦ la démocratisation,
◦ des droits de l’homme.
En effet, elle souhaite avoir un rôle majeur dans la pacification des zones de conflit dans le monde.

Les auteurs souhaitent montrer comment grâce aux divers outils de la sociologie et de la science politique, la politique étrangère de l’UE et ses actions extérieurs évoluent. Ils mettent l’accent sur les stratégies alternatives de résolution des conflits développés par l’UE au cours des années.

Il convient de souligner que l’UE et sa politique étrangère sont montrées dans une optique multilatérale, internationale, en comparaison aux autres organisations intergouvernementales, universelles ou régionales qui possèdent déjà depuis plus longtemps les instruments de gestion des crises. En effet, toutes ses organisations participent dans l’organisation du monde.

L’histoire de la politique extérieure de l’UE est animé par l’objectif de mettre les Européens a contribution dans la résolution des conflits. En effet, selon les auteurs, l’UE souhaite devenir conflict manager global.

De la lecture de ce lire découle deux conclusions :
1. la diplomatie européenne sur le niveau régional et mondial reste historiquement liée à la pacification des conflits grâce aux plusieurs modèles de médiations : le soutien financier aux ONG, des expertises externes, le soutien des partenaires,
2. la faiblesse, l’incohérence des moyens entretenus et le manque d’un soutien politique mènent à une baisse d’influence progressive à l’échelle mondiale et à une baisse de la capacité d’intervention de l’UE.
D’ou besoin d’évolution des instruments, de mécanismes et d’institutions spécialisés afin de redéfinir la nouvelle politique de la paix de l’Union.

Il convient de souligner les valeurs scientifiques et même didactiques de cet oeuvre. Malgré son style très technique, qui semble momentanément rude, cette lecture mène à une réflection et un jugement critique envers la politique de l’UE.

Chronologie - politique de la paix de l’UE:

1. Maastricht - chapitre 5- PESC
1. résolution de conflit
2. missions de Petersberg (UEO) : maintien de la paix, missions humanitaires, gestion de crise, rétablissement de la paix
2. Amsterdam - maintien de la paix, missions de forces de combat
3. St.Malo 1998 - capacités militaires (parallèlement - institutionnalisation de la politique européenne de sécurité et de défense
4. Göteborg 2001 - prévention des conflits = un des principaux objectifs des relations extérieurs de l’UE
5. Stratégie européenne de secouriste - équilibre civili-militaire dans la gestion des crises

• 34 missions lances - dans le cadre de la politique européenne de sécurité et de défense entre 2003-2015 (16 achevés, 18 en cours début 2015)
• deux tiers de ces missions ont un caractère civile (coopération police/justice, renforcement de l’Etat de droit)
• taille modeste - qqn dizaines/centaines d’agent.

• Parlement eu. - groupes de médiation - évolution vers une prévention de conflit et une médiation
• Création de l’Institut européen de la paix (IEP) à l’initiative de la Suède et de la Finlande
▪ médiation européenne de la paix européenne
▪ diplomatie informelle
▪ politisation des enjeux lies a la médiation des conflits (différents intérêts des pays membres de l’UE)

Processus Israélo-Palestinien
- jeux d’intérêts des pays membres de l’UE; production normative croissante de l’UE et pas de stratégie politique clairement définie ; par conséquent - une baisse d’influence progressive de l’UE, incohérence entre les normes promues et la capacité d’intervention de l’UE; financement de l’UE majeur (poids financier)

écrit par dr Kinga Torbicka, chercheuse associée de l`Institut Europa Varietas

Tag: Kinga Torbickagestion civile des crisesCSDP
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Airbus bought 50% of Bombardier aircraft section

Wed, 10/18/2017 - 21:42

The European aircraft manufacturer Airbus takes control of the CSeries medium-haul aircraft program of Canadian Bombardier. By this operation Airbus puts 50.01% of the flagship program of the family business in Quebec. A "win-win" operation Airbus shares took 4% on the Paris Stock Exchange.

The company that built the medium-haul jet was created in 2016 by Bombardier and the Government of Quebec to save the bankruptcy program. Ultimately, Airbus will take the majority stake in this company alongside family shareholders (31%) and Quebec authorities (19%). Indeed, under pressure from Boeing, the Trump administration, on the pretext of this subsidy, had overwhelmed the CSeries with an exceptional tax of 300%. A sort of death sentence for a program that has accumulated only 350 orders, but $ 450 million in losses in 2016. Yet the Quebec builder had spared no effort to try to sell his new plane. According to some analysts, the discounts could reach 75% for a device billed about $ 70 million at the list price.

Indeed, this program of medium-haul aircraft perfectly complements the range of Airbus. The CSeries is a 100 to 150-seat airplane of the latest generation, launched in 2013. It is located at the very beginning of the range of Airbus single-aisle aircraft, with 150 to 240 seats. It replaces an aging A319. Once integrated into the industrial aircraft of the European aircraft manufacturer, the CSeries should prove its full commercial potential.

Aircraft are expected to require more than 6,000 aircraft with 100 to 150 seats within 20 years. More importantly, the entry of the CSeries into the bosom of Airbus reinforces the dominance of the European aircraft manufacturer in the medium-haul segment. Airbus already holds more than 60% of a market estimated at more than 25,000 aircraft by 2037.

Tag: AirbusBombardier
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Benvinguts a la República Independent de Catalunya !

Mon, 10/02/2017 - 00:00

Freedom of expression is the right of every person to think as he wishes and to be able to express his opinions by any means he deems appropriate in the fields of politics, philosophy, religion, morals. Freedom of expression in a democratic country of the European Union is considered illegal. In a EU that never hesitates to give lessons in human rights and democracy, for example to African or Balkans countries.

According to Barcelona, the YES has won with 90% of the votes. Some 2.26 million people voted and 2.02 million voted in favor of independence. These figures represent a participation of almost 42.3%, Catalonia counting 5.34 million voters.

The referendum is quite illegal under the Spanish Constitution and the interpretation given to it by the Spanish Constitutional Court. ("It is not within the competence of the autonomies to hold consultations ... which have an impact on the fundamental issues resolved by the constitutional process.") But it is legal according to the Catalan law.

Tag: Catalunya
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Airbus Family Flight

Thu, 06/15/2017 - 22:06

Air show with an A350 XWB, an A400M, an Eurofighter Typhoon and an H160 helicopter.

Tag: Airbus
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Intégration européenne - nouvelle ouverture vue de Varsovie

Wed, 04/26/2017 - 18:00

Suite à une conférence qui s’est tenue à Varsovie le 23 mars 2017 intitulée „Intégration européenne - nouvelle ouverture” organisée par l’Institut des Affaires Internationales de la Pologne (PISM) et la Chancellerie de Premier Ministre de la Pologne (Kancelaria Prezesa Rady Ministrów) l’auteur souhaite présenter la voix de la Pologne dans la discussion autour de l’Europe.

La conférence était organisée à l’occasion de célébrer la soixante anniversaire de la signature des Traités de Rome.
Selon Beata Szydło, la Première ministre polonaise l’Europe d’aujourd’hui se trouve devant les quatre questions majeurs:
1. l’avenir de l’Europe est mise en question;
2. les crises en UE - la crise en zone euro et le Brexit ;
3. la crise migratoire;
4. le terrorisme (les nombreux attaques terroristes dans les capitales européennes).

Face à ces problèmes qui mettent en doute l’idée de l’intégration européenne celle de Jean Monnet et de Robert Schuman il faut souligner deux règles qui sont des fondements de l’UE: l’unité et la solidarité.
Par ailleurs, le gouvernement polonais se prononce contre „une Europe à multiples vitesses” on y voyant une force qui désintègre l’Europe de l’intérieur. La Pologne est pour plus de compétences attribuées aux parlementaires nationaux, pour une „solidarité élastique” et pour „une Union des Nations”.
„D’ores et déjà la Pologne constitue une partie intégrale de l’Union européenne” constate Beata Szydło.

Comment les dirigeants polonais voient la sortie de l’Union européenne de la crise actuelle?

Le 1er mars 2017 la Commission européenne publie un Livre Blanc qui désigne le besoin des réformes.
Les dangers les plus importants qui touchent actuellement la coopération européenne sont:
- les migrations;
- le marché commun est en crise;
- les dangers extérieurs.
Cette besoin de changements\réformes devrait venir de la volonté des citoyens européens. Ceux derniers démontrent de plus en plus souvent le manque de confiance aux élites politiques au pouvoir (et réciproquement - d’où la peur devant les électeurs). Les citoyens européens ont peur de perdre leurs sécurité:
- la sécurité économique (face à la crise économique montante de la zone euro);
- la sécurité vitale, celle de tous les jours (face à la crise migratoire et au terrorisme montant sur leur territoire).

Ici, il convient de souligner qu’une renaissance de partage Est/Ouest revient en Europe. Malheureusement, l’idée d’une Europe à plusieurs vitesses peut mener à des nouveaux partages stéréotypes en Europe, à la création des cercles intérieures d’intégration et à la création une „avant-garde d’intégration où les pays les plus forts domineront. Ainsi, une sorte de frustration est dirigée vers les pays de l’Est et leurs voisins. D’où vient encore une fois cette besoin de réformes qui est sans doute dans l’intérêt de toute l’Europe.
Andrzej Duda, le président polonais postule les priorités suivants:
- l’unité : les quatre unités européens - le droit, les institutions, le budget, le marché commun;
- la liberté : les quatre libertés : la libre circulation des biens, des capitaux, des services et des personnes.

En conclusion, les priorités de la Pologne dans le cadre de l’intégration européenne future sont suivants:
• plus de réactivité de L’UE (L’Union doit être plus réactive car souvent elle semble n’est pas prête de faire face aux problèmes qui apparaissent. Pourtant, elle est soumise aux processus globaux.);
• l’intégration élastique (pas de création de l’hiérarchie des forums d’intégration;
• question de libertés;
• l’intégration euro-atlantique;
• l’idée de „Trois-Mers” (Trójmorza) les mers: Adriatique, Baltique et Noire;
• plus de démocratie;
• une communauté des valeurs;
• l’élargissement de l’intégration européenne.

L’Europe face aux défis de la sécurité globale. L’Europe une forteresse ou un empire?

L’Europe d’aujourd’hui se retrouve confrontée aux défis suivants:
- le terrorisme;
- les conflits militaires;
- les empires extérieurs;
- le progrès technologique;
- l’impérialisme russe;
- la pression démographique - les migrations.

Aujourd’hui dans l’époque postatlantique, les dangers sont perçus des différentes manières - car les intérêts des États membres sont différents. Pourtant, face aux défis du monde de la globalisation, il est nécessaire qu’UE devient plus réactionnelle. Elle perds son attractivité et devient une institution qui se retire, se défend. De plus, elle constitue un obstacle pour elle même en approfondissant ses crises. La crise touche non seulement le continent européen mais aussi d’autres régions dans le monde entier. Tandis que l’Amérique mène une politique d’influences à l’extérieur, l’Europe prend une position défensive.
Pourtant, comme soulignait Fernand Braudel l’Europe constitue une Civilisation et les européens possèdent une Histoire plus longue.

écrit par dr Kinga Torbicka, chercheuse associée de l`Institut Europa Varietas

Tag: VarsovieKinga Torbicka
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP

Un manuel sur l’Europe de la défense (PSDC)

Tue, 04/25/2017 - 00:00

La politique européenne de sécurité et de défense commune : "Parce que l'Europe vaut bien une défense"
par André Dumoulin et Nicolas Gros-Verheyde
Editions du Villard (3 avril 2017)

Pour tout comprendre à l’Europe de la défense, il y a enfin une solution. Un manuel complet sur la « politique européenne de sécurité et de défense commune », le premier d’une longue série, publié aux éditions du Villard.

Une vraie « bible » sur l’Europe de la défense

C’est une première car il n’existe aujourd’hui, aucun ouvrage en français, à jour, faisant le tour de toutes les questions que pose l’Europe de la Défense, de façon claire et pédagogique. Ce qu’on appelle la « Politique européenne de sécurité et de défense commune » (PSDC) reste encore un no man’s land, bourré de fantasmes et largement méconnu.

Une politique encore méconnue

Née dans les Balkans, cette politique européenne devenue commune a évolué par à-coups. Certains la rêvent comme une « armée européenne » ou une alternative à l’OTAN. D’autres vilipendent sa faiblesse ou sa lenteur. La PESD devenue PSDC n’a ni ces ambitions ni ces tares. Au contraire ! Et elle recèle des avantages, mal connus. C’est tout l’enjeu de cet ouvrage : savoir comment fonctionne réellement l’Europe de la Défense.

Un ouvrage à quatre mains

Cet ouvrage est rédigé à quatre mains, par un universitaire et un journaliste, qui ont allié leur commune expertise : André Dumoulin (chargé de cours à l’université de Liège et professeur à l’Institut royal militaire – belge) et Nicolas Gros-Verheyde (rédacteur en chef de B2, ancien auditeur à l’IHEDN, correspondant de Sud-Ouest auprès de l’UE et de l’OTAN). Le premier apporte le recul historique pour comprendre, le second donne une mise en relief de l’actualité.

En savoir plus

Tag: PSDCAndré DumoulinNicolas Gros-Verheyde
Categories: Blogroll, CSDP